I have twice before come to seek thee,—Once at Montreal, speaking to the French In thy absence; the 2 nd time, at Quebec. It is for the third time that I now come. When foraging groups overhunted the game in their accustomed territory, as often happened, they were usually more than willing to invade the area of a neighboring group and claim its resources for their own. The majority of their food came from horticulture, so they faced no need to relocate into territory held by others due to overhunting.
In the early years of European colonization, disease greatly reduced indigenous populations before the settlers arrived in large numbers. During the Beaver Wars, there was actually much more available land per capita, due to this population reduction, than there had been before the arrival of the Europeans.
While warfare did take on cultural and economic attributes, understanding the Beaver Wars only in terms of the fur trade and the role of warfare in culture is far too simplistic. When people died in the Iroquois communities, the grieving relatives expected the dead to be symbolically replaced as soon as possible.
Rather, the goal was to take captives, who would replace the dead. Losses among warriors involved in the mourning wars could also be called on to be replaced. Large-scale casualties were rare, and when they did occur, they were considered great tragedies. Since disease was regarded as a hostile attack by unknown agents, those who died from sickness had to be replaced by mourning war. This process of replacing the dead by assigning their names and responsibilities to others is referred to as requickening. Condolence would allow for blood feuds to end, and for people within a nation to be requickened, with the use of wampum, into new titles to replace the dead.
Condolence has been seen as a replacement for the mourning wars. The warfare among Iroquois-speaking nations had begun long before European contact added fuel to the fire, with its contributions of epidemic disease, firearms, and other metal weapons. In the late s, they moved their villages south to the river that still bears their name. Lawrence River. After a shooting star destroyed one of their villages on the St. Lawrence, the confederacy broke down, leaving two or three smaller confederacies in their wake who eventually became hostile to each other.
Lawrence Iroquoians. When Samuel de Champlain came to the river in , those Iroquois-speaking communities were gone. The St. It became necessary to secure a stable supply of pelts, and to deprive their enemies of the same. While already engaged in wars with multiple indigenous nations and the French, and with changes to their economy and material technology, it must have seemed an apocalyptic scenario. The Wendat and other nations were similarly affected by epidemic diseases. The Beaver Wars continued.
The Atingeennonniahak Cord remained as the sole Wendat nation. Barr compares accounts of the conflict and determines that:. More than Huron people are recorded as having been killed during these raids, with an astonishing 2,—one-fifth of their post epidemic population—captured and deported to Iroquoia. These numbers are likely low-end estimates….
Both scenarios illustrate that the acquisition of enemy captives to replace Iroquois population losses was the primary factor in the Beaver Wars, which were not a series of conflicts designed to impose Iroquois control over the fur trade, but rather an Iroquois fight for survival, one vast, prolonged mourning war. From the perspective of many Iroquois speakers, they were the same people; membership among the warring nations could be quite fluid.
Warfare with the Susquehannock continued. The last Susquehannocks were not adopted, but were massacred by English settlers from Maryland.
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Autonomous villages were common. The Beaver Wars might best be seen as bloody civil war among Iroquois-speaking people in the context of a larger series of devastating tragedies, not a genocidal conflict based on resource acquisition. Increasingly, the Beaver Wars are being referred to as the Iroquois Wars—which seems far more appropriate since the majority of the participants were Iroquois-speakers. All three were fought with similar weapons. They look at the Great Law and interpret it the way a constitutional lawyer would.
All quarrels and disputes are settled by the whole of the community affected, by the gens or the tribe, or by the gentes among themselves; only as an extreme and exceptional measure is blood revenge threatened-and our capital punishment is nothing but blood revenge in a civilized form, with all the advantages and drawbacks of civilization. Although there were many more matters to be settled in common than today — the household is maintained by a number of families in common, and is communistic, the land belongs to the tribe, only the small gardens are allotted provisionally to the households — yet there is no need for even a trace of our complicated administrative apparatus with all its ramifications.
The decisions are taken by those concerned, and in most cases everything has been already settled by the custom of centuries. There cannot be any poor or needy — the communal household and the gens know their responsibilities towards the old, the sick, and those disabled in war. All are equal and free — the women included. There is no place yet for slaves, nor, as a rule, for the subjugation of other tribes. Such a society may or may not be stratified. Office-holders, male and female, were elected from among a pool of possible heirs; the offices themselves, at least the male political ones, were considered as much a responsibility as a reward as they involved no real material rewards and certainly granted the holder no coercive power.
To others, this concept represents the infiltration of European corruption into Haundenosaunee leadership selection and the fortification of a class system invading our traditional concept of democracy with notions of royalty. Likewise, advocates against the heredity concept believe it to be a non-traditional convention that is a fairly recent development resulting from colonization.
Graeber notes this as well. This in turn meant that face-to-face persuasion was the rule. The goal is not total agreement, but total understanding. If there is no agreement, then the consensus is to retain the status quo.
If there is understanding by all then they go ahead with the decision In entering the consensual decision-making process, whatever ideas are put into the process, the needs and attitudes of each is considered and complements the decision. Also, the individual has a duty to be directly involved, and to bring their ideas into the discussion within their clan.
The final decision will be fully satisfactory to some, satisfactory to others and relatively satisfactory to the remainder, and will reflect elements from every group. It is a mutual agreement of non-aggression among its participants, aimed primarily on maintaining peaceful relations among them, rather than a guiding document for the rule of elites over the rest of society.
The League was less a government, or even alliance, than a series of treaties establishing amity and providing the institutional means for preventing feuds and maintaining harmony among the five nations that made it up. For all their reputation as predatory warriors, the Iroquois themselves saw the essence of political action to lie in making peace.
It was a peace-offering, the acceptance of which was pressed by mutual friends, and under such influences that the reconciliation was usually effect, except, perhaps, in aggravated cases of premeditated murder. Theft, vandalism, armed robbery, were almost unknown. Public opinion, gently exercised, was sufficient to deter most persons from property crimes, for public opinion went straight to the heart of the matter: the weakness of the criminal.
Western society is dependent on imprisonment, fines and other punishments, which are supposed to keep social order. Perhaps a little spirituality, shame, guilt, and respect of self and community would be the best elements to include in a recipe for a true system of justice.
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In the early seventeenth century, the League possessed few state like characteristics: the Five nations had little in the way of common foreign policy, no effective means of devising unified strategies, and no central government in the sense that term is usually understood by Americans. Indeed, on various issues the ten or so autonomous towns of Iroquoia were often at odds with one another as they were in consensus. The League was not designed to remedy the deficit—nor, apparently, did the Iroquois people even perceive that there was any kind of deficit Daniel Richter, Ordeal of the Longhouse .
Societies that are more ranked and stratified are more statist. Often they struggled for dominance within the league, and sometimes though rarely they came to blows with each other. These phenomena were also to be observed among colonial towns and villages, but whereas the Iroquois tribes maintained local independence throughout their existence, the colonies gradually came under more and more effective central controls. Anarchism is a Greek word meaning without government. Others, like Ward Churchill, have seen commonalities between Indigenism and Anarchism.
Not only do the commonalities exist in terms of philosophy, but they are increasingly being seen on the levels of strategy and praxis:. Parallel critical ideas and visions of post-imperial futures have been noted by a few thinkers, but something that may be called anarcho-indigenism has yet to develop into a coherent philosophy. There are also important strategic commonalities between indigenous and anarchist ways of seeing and being in the world It is on this last point that connections have already been made between Onkwehonwe groups and non-indigenous activist groups in the anti-globalization movement.
Perhaps anarchism and the struggle of other social movements have had effects upon indigenism as well. Our ideas about injustice might even possess and lead us to fight our own people and the injustice they are bringing on through the instrument of their form of government. There is an alterative to a stratified, hierarchical, patriarchical society and an exploitive economy—but we must build it now, and not wait idly for some far-off future when material culture has completed its development.
There is an alternative to kleptocracy. It is possible today! Daniel P. Donald A. Grinde, Jr and Bruce E. Donald S. Barbara A.
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A younger brother nation. The keepers of the Eastern Door. An older brother nation. Allied to the United States during the U. Revolutionary War. Keepers of the central council fire. Their badge of office is a deer antler headress, symbolizing that they will only eat the flesh of deer and make war no more.
Iroquois-speaking nation. Iroquois-speaking nation who migrated north after pressure from North Carlonia settlers. Included : Arendahronon rock people ; Attignawantan Attignaouentan, Attignousntan bear people ; Attigneenongnahac Attiguenongha cord people ; and Tahontaenrat Scanonaerat, Scahentoarrhonon deer people. Title is requickened. Barbara Alice Mann, Ph. Natoway Brian Rice, Ph. The title has been passed on to subsquent U.
Taiaiake Gerald Alfred, Ph. The title is not requickened. Also called the St.
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We say, We will not be like Father and Son, but like Brothers. This wampum belt confirms our words. These two rows will symbolize two paths or two vessels, traveling down the same river together. The other, a ship, will be for the white people and their laws, their customs and their ways. We shall each travel the river together, side by side, but in our boat. Neither of us will make compulsory laws or interfere in the internal affairs of the other. Now we have Symbolized this Agreement and it shall be binding forever as long as Mother Earth is still in motion.
Thanks for sending me your essay on the Iroquois, It appears to be a very good piece of research, although I am not an Iroquois specialist. I have the following comments:. First, one has to be extremely careful in using myths and oral traditions as data. Too often they are polished up to fit a contemporary view of propriety or someones idea of correctness.
Second, and more important I suspect that you have greatly overestimated the density of population. The density you report as per acre refers only to the inhabitants of the towns and does not encompass the surrounding garden area or hunting grounds. Iroquois depended entirely on wild game for meat and this would require a large area around any town. It would be more dense for horticulturalists but not enormously more.
Then if they had, as reported, a million bushels of corn in reserves this would require acres in addition to all the other corn grown as well as squash and beans. I suspect that this ultimately means clearly less than 50 per square mile- a figure which could still make Iroquois a more densely populated area than others although one should not forget fishing specialists such as the New England Coast or the West Coast of Canada and the Alaskan Panhandle, nor the horticultural and cattle herding stateless societies in Africa. Coming in at a distant second was Etrian Odyssey IV with a respectable 97,, marking a fine launch for the latest in the cult series.
Meanwhile, Platinum Game's highly anticipated Anarchy Reigns failed to sell well in its debut week. The PS3 version came in eighth place with 21,, while its counterpart was way down at number 28 with 4, sales. This certainly doesn't bode well for Sega's recently delayed multiplayer brawler. Here's the full chart, as reported by Andriasang :. Last week saw a significant boost due to the Vita launching its Crystal White coloured unit. Sometimes we include links to online retail stores. If you click on one and make a purchase we may receive a small commission.
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