One woman was so angry at the thought of how The Well would affect an "isolated emerging lesbian" that she "wrote a note in the library book, to tell other readers that women loving women can be beautiful". James Douglas illustrated his denunciation of The Well with a photograph of Radclyffe Hall in a silk smoking jacket and bow tie, holding a cigarette and monocle. She was also wearing a straight knee-length skirt, but later Sunday Express articles cropped the photo so tightly that it became difficult to tell she was not wearing trousers.
In the s and early '80s, when lesbian feminists rejected the butch and femme identities that Hall's novel had helped to define, writers like Jane Rule and Blanche Wiesen Cook criticised The Well for defining lesbianism in terms of masculinity, as well as for presenting lesbian life as "joyless". Furthermore, The Well arguably embodies what modern readers may regard as misogynistic and biphobic ideas in its presentation of the femme women who experience attraction towards Stephen but eventually end up in heterosexual relationships.
Mary's femininity, in particular, is belittled by Hall's presentation of her: She is not Stephen's equal in age, education, family, or wealth, and so is constantly infantilised by her lover. This, coupled with Mary's dependence on Stephen, seems to emphasise the supposed inferiority of the feminine to the masculine. The understanding of sexuality represented in the novel is considered strictly in binary terms and exists within misogynistic stereotypes that were prevalent when the novel was published.
This contributes to the undertones of biphobia that are present in the treatment of the femme characters that exhibit female-female sexual attraction, especially so in the treatment of Mary. These choices could be partly explained by the understanding of the term bisexuality at the time. During the interwar period the definition was most often understood as a scientific term describing a psychological gender duality, rather than referencing a sexual preference.
In other words, the term was used as a scientific neologism for androgyny, and related to understandings of gender and sex, but not to sexual preferences. This also means that the femme characters, such as Mary, are represented as inferior to the masculine. It invalidates their sexuality as bisexual, because bisexuality did not fit within the binary definitions of sexual inversion. Some critics assert that The Well ' s queer significance extends beyond lesbianism, arguing that the novel provides important bisexual representation in literature.
Other criticism focuses on the potential confusion of sexuality with gender in the novel. Esther Newton, writing in , provides a different perspective of Hall's seemingly confusing depiction of Stephen's lesbianism and its conflation with her gender, hinging her discussion on understanding The Well in its historical and social context.
Newton argues that "Hall and many other feminists like her embraced [ Sex was seen as something that "could only occur in the presence of an imperial and imperious penis",  such that sex between women was simply not recognised to exist. Newton shows how sexologists of the time, like Ellis , echoes this sentiment, where his "antifeminism and reluctance to see active lust in women committed him to fusing inversion and masculinity". Hence, for Stephen's lesbianism to be recognised by the readers in that time, Hall had to deliberately show Stephen "enter ing the male world, [ The novel has had its defenders among feminists in the academy, such as Alison Hennegan , pointing out that the novel did raise awareness of homosexuality among the British public and cleared the way for later work that tackled gay and lesbian issues.
In more recent criticism, critics have tended to focus on the novel's historical context,  but The Well' s reputation as " the most depressing lesbian novel ever written"  persists and is still controversial. Some critics see the book as reinforcing homophobic beliefs, while others argue that the book's tragedy and its depiction of shame are its most compelling aspects.
The Well ' s ideas and attitudes now strike many readers as dated, and few critics praise its literary quality. Brockett, acting as tour guide, hints at a secret history of inversion in the city by referring to Marie Antoinette 's rumoured relationship with the Princesse de Lamballe. Immediately after this meeting Stephen announces she has decided to settle in Paris at 35 Rue Jacob purchased at Seymour's recommendation , with its temple in a corner of an overgrown garden.
Barney lived and held her salon at 20 Rue Jacob. Many of those familiar with the subculture she described, including her own friends, disagreed with her portrayal of it; Romaine Brooks called her "a digger-up of worms with the pretension of a distinguished archaeologist". Although Hall's author's note disclaims any real-world basis for the ambulance unit that Stephen joins, she drew heavily on the wartime experiences of her friend Toupie Lowther , co-commander of the only women's unit to serve on the front in France.
Lowther, like Stephen, came from an aristocratic family, adopted a masculine style of dress, and was an accomplished fencer, tennis player, motorist and jujitsu enthusiast. In The Well of Loneliness , war work provides a publicly acceptable role for inverted women. The narrative voice asks that their contributions not be forgotten and predicts that they will not go back into hiding: "a battalion was formed in those terrible years that would never again be completely disbanded".
Hall, who had converted to the Roman Catholic Church in , was devoutly religious. Stephen, born on Christmas Eve and named for the first martyr of Christianity , dreams as a child that "in some queer way she [is] Jesus". They call on her to intercede with God for them, and finally possess her. It is with their collective voice that she demands of God, "Give us also the right to our existence". After Stephen reads Krafft-Ebing in her father's library, she opens the Bible at random, seeking a sign, and reads Genesis , "And the Lord set a mark upon Cain Three publishers praised The Well but turned it down.
Hall's agent then sent the manuscript to Jonathan Cape who, though cautious about publishing a controversial book, saw the potential for a commercial success. Though the two books proved to have little in common, Hall and Cape saw Extraordinary Women as a competitor and wanted to beat it to market. The Well appeared on 27 July, in a black cover with a plain jacket.
Cape sent review copies only to newspapers and magazines he thought would handle the subject matter non-sensationally. Early reviews were mixed.
Adam Victor Brandizzi
Some critics found the novel too preachy;  others, including Leonard Woolf , thought it was poorly structured, or complained of sloppiness in style. There was praise for its sincerity and artistry, and some expressed sympathy with Hall's moral argument. Havelock Ellis in the preface, that 'the poignant situations are set forth with a complete absence of offence. Papers from the author's archive, which are set to be digitised by the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas alongside those of her partner, the artist Una Vincenzo, Lady Troubridge, show that the novel was supported by thousands of readers, who wrote to Hall in outrage at the ban.
Although some writers in the s and s treated The Well of Loneliness as a thinly veiled autobiography,  Hall's childhood bore little resemblance to Stephen's. James Douglas, editor of the Sunday Express , did not agree. Douglas was a dedicated moralist, an exponent of muscular Christianity , which sought to reinvigorate the Church of England by promoting physical health and manliness. His colourfully worded editorials on subjects such as "the flapper vote" that is, the extension of suffrage to women under 30 and "modern sex novelists" helped the Express family of papers prosper in the cutthroat circulation wars of the late s.
These leader articles shared the pages of the Sunday Express with gossip, murderers' confessions, and features about the love affairs of great men and women of the past. Above all, children must be protected: "I would rather give a healthy boy or a healthy girl a phial of prussic acid than this novel. Poison kills the body, but moral poison kills the soul. In what Hall described as an act of "imbecility coupled with momentary panic", Jonathan Cape sent a copy of The Well to the Home Secretary for his opinion, offering to withdraw the book if it would be in the public interest to do so.
The Home Secretary was William Joynson-Hicks , a Conservative known for his crackdowns on alcohol, nightclubs and gambling, as well as for his opposition to a revised version of The Book of Common Prayer. He took only two days to reply that The Well was "gravely detrimental to the public interest"; if Cape did not withdraw it voluntarily, criminal proceedings would be brought. Cape announced that he had stopped publication, but he secretly leased the rights to Pegasus Press , an English-language publisher in France. With publicity increasing demand, sales were brisk, but the reappearance of The Well on bookshop shelves soon came to the attention of the Home Office.
On 3 October Joynson-Hicks issued a warrant for shipments of the book to be seized. One consignment of copies was stopped at Dover. Then the Chairman of the Board of Customs balked. He had read The Well and considered it a fine book, not at all obscene; he wanted no part of suppressing it.
On 19 October he released the seized copies for delivery to Leopold Hill's premises, where the Metropolitan Police were waiting with a search warrant. Hill and Cape were summoned to appear at Bow Street Magistrates' Court to show cause why the book should not be destroyed. From its beginning, the Sunday Express ' s campaign drew the attention of other papers. Leonard Woolf and E. Forster drafted a letter of protest against the suppression of The Well , assembling a list of supporters that included Shaw, T.
The obscenity trial began on 9 November Many were reluctant to appear in court; according to Virginia Woolf, "they generally put it down to the weak heart of a father, or a cousin who is about to have twins". Norman Haire , who was the star witness after Havelock Ellis bowed out, declared that homosexuality ran in families and a person could no more become it by reading books than if he could become syphilitic by reading about syphilis.
Under the Obscene Publications Act of , Chief Magistrate Sir Chartres Biron could decide whether the book was obscene without hearing any testimony on the question. Birkett arrived in court two hours late. Biron replied, "I have read the book. She took advantage of a lunch recess to tell him that if he continued to maintain her book had no lesbian content she would stand up in court and tell the magistrate the truth before anyone could stop her.
Birkett was forced to retract. He argued instead that the book was tasteful and possessed a high degree of literary merit. The theme itself should not be forbidden, and the book's treatment of its theme was unexceptionable.
Sir Chartres Biron's judgment . In his judgement, issued on 16 November,  Biron applied the Hicklin test of obscenity: a work was obscene if it tended to "deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such immoral influences". He held that the book's literary merit was irrelevant because a well-written obscene book was even more harmful than a poorly written one.
The topic in itself was not necessarily unacceptable; a book that depicted the "moral and physical degradation which indulgence in those vices must necessary involve" might be allowed, but no reasonable person could say that a plea for the recognition and toleration of inverts was not obscene. He ordered the book destroyed, with the defendants to pay court costs.
But when Kipling appeared on the morning of the trial, Inskip told him he would not be needed. James Melville had wired the defence witnesses the night before to tell them not to come in. The panel of twelve magistrates who heard the appeal had to rely on passages Inskip read to them for knowledge of the book, since the Director of Public Prosecutions had refused to release copies for them to read. After deliberating for only five minutes, they upheld Biron's decision.
The Sink of Solitude , an anonymous lampoon in verse by "several hands", appeared in late Stephensen , described The Well ' s moral argument as "feeble" and dismissed Havelock Ellis as a "psychopath", The Sink itself endorsed the view that lesbianism was innate:.
It portrayed Hall as a humourless moralist who had a great deal in common with the opponents of her novel. The image horrified Hall; her guilt at being depicted in a drawing that she saw as blasphemous led to her choice of a religious subject for her next novel, The Master of the House. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. But after Cape brought forward the publication date, Knopf found itself in the position of publishing a book that had been withdrawn in its home country.
They refused, telling Hall that nothing they could do would keep the book from being treated as pornography. Friede had heard gossip about The Well at a party at Theodore Dreiser 's house and immediately decided to acquire it. He had previously sold a copy of Dreiser's An American Tragedy to a Boston police officer to create a censorship test case, which he had lost; he was awaiting an appeal, which he would also lose. Friede invited John Saxton Sumner of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice to buy a copy directly from him, to ensure that he, not a bookseller, would be the one prosecuted.
He also travelled to Boston to give a copy to the Watch and Ward Society , hoping both to further challenge censorship of literature and to generate more publicity; he was disappointed when they told him they saw nothing wrong with the book. In New York, Sumner and several police detectives seized copies of The Well from the publisher's offices, and Friede was charged with selling an obscene publication. But Covici and Friede had already moved the printing plates out of New York in order to continue publishing the book.
By the time the case came to trial, it had already been reprinted six times. In the US, as in the UK, the Hicklin test of obscenity applied, but New York case law had established that books should be judged by their effects on adults rather than on children and that literary merit was relevant. Scott Fitzgerald , Edna St. To make sure these supporters did not go unheard, he incorporated their opinions into his brief. New York. Since , with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix , Amazon Video , iPlayer and Hulu.
Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mids. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the s via the Internet; until the early s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late s.
A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television. The first documented usage of the term dates back to , when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August during the International World Fair in Paris ; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in , when it was still " It was " The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from ; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the s and throughout the s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States , another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release.
Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between and Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in ; as a year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model.
Chord music A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of multiple notes that are heard as if sounding simultaneously. For many practical and theoretical purposes and broken chords, or sequences of chord tones, may be considered as chords. Chords and sequences of chords are used in modern West African and Oceanic music, Western classical music, Western popular music.
In tonal Western classical music, the most encountered chords are triads , so called because they consist of three distinct notes: the root note, intervals of a third and a fifth above the root note. Chords with more than three notes include added tone chords, extended chords and tone clusters, which are used in contemporary classical music and other genres. A series of chords is called a chord progression. One example of a used chord progression in Western traditional music and blues is the 12 bar blues progression.
Although any chord may in principle be followed by any other chord, certain patterns of chords are more common in Western music, some patterns have been accepted as establishing the key in common-practice harmony—notably the resolution of a dominant chord to a tonic chord. To describe this, Western music theory has developed the practice of numbering chords using Roman numerals to represent the number of diatonic steps up from the tonic note of the scale.
Common ways of notating or representing chords in Western music include Roman numerals, the Nashville number system , figured bass , macro symbols , chord charts; the English word chord derives from Middle English cord, a shortening of accord in the original sense of agreement and harmonious sound. A sequence of chords is known as a chord harmonic progression; these are used in Western music. A chord progression "aims for a definite goal" of establishing a tonality founded on a key, root or tonic chord; the study of harmony involves chords and chord progressions and the principles of connection that govern them.
Furthermore, as three notes are needed to define any common chord, three is taken as the minimum number of notes that form a definite chord. Hence, Andrew Surmani , for example, states, "When three or more notes are sounded together, the combination is called a chord. Jones agrees: "Two tones sounding together are termed an interval, while three or more tones are called a chord. However, sonorities of two pitches, or single-note melodies, are heard as implying chords.
A simple example of two notes being interpreted as a chord is when the root and third are played but the fifth is omitted. In the key of C major, if the music comes to rest on the two notes G and B, most listeners will hear this as a G major chord. Since a chord may be understood as such when all its notes are not audible, there has been some academic discussion regarding the point at which a group of notes may be called a chord. In the medieval era, early Christian hymns featured organum , with chord progressions and harmony an incidental result of the emphasis on melodic lines during the medieval and Renaissance.
The Baroque period, the 17th and 18th centuries, began to feature the major and minor scale based tonal system and harmony, including chord progressions and circle progressions, it was in the Baroque period that the accompaniment of melodies with chords was developed, as in figured bass, the familiar cadences. In the Renaissance, certain dissonant sonorities that suggest the dominant seventh occurred with frequency.
In the Baroque period, the dominant seventh proper was introduced and was in constant use in the Classical and Romantic periods; the leading-tone seventh remains in use. Composers began to use nondominant seventh chords in the Baroque period, they became frequent in the Classical period, gave way to altered dominants in the Romantic period, underwent a resurgence in the Post-Romantic and Impressionistic period.
The Romantic period, the 19th century, featured increased chromaticism. Composers began to use secondary dominants in the Baroque, they became common in the Romantic period. Many contemporary popular Western genres continue to rely on simple diatonic harmony, though far from universally: notable exceptions include the music of film scores, which use chromatic, atonal or post-tonal harmony, modern jazz , in which chords may include up to seven notes; when referring to chords that do not function as harmony, such as in atonal music, the term "sonority" is used to avoid any tonal implications of the word "chord".
Chords can be represent. Monaco has four traditional quarters. Monte Carlo is situated on a prominent escarpment at the base of the Maritime Alps along the French Riviera. At the quarter's eastern border, one crosses into the French town of Beausoleil , just 8 kilometres to its east is the western border of Italy. By the s Monaco's reigning family was bankrupt.
At the time, a number of small towns in Europe were growing prosperous from the establishment of casinos, notably in German towns such as Baden-Baden and Homburg. In Charles III of Monaco granted a concession to Napoleon Langlois and Albert Aubert to establish a sea-bathing facility for the treatment of various diseases, to build a German-style casino in Monaco; the initial casino was not a success.
The success of the casino grew largely due to the area's inaccessibility from much of Europe; the installation of the railway in , brought with it an influx of people into Monte Carlo and saw it grow in wealth. The municipalities were merged into one in , after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer" and they were accorded the status of wards thereafter. Today, Monaco is divided into 10 wards, with an eleventh ward planned to encompass land reclaimed from the sea; the quarter of Monte Carlo was served by tramways from to In a new cruise ship pier was completed in the harbour at Monte Carlo.
Monte Carlo has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, influenced by oceanic climate and humid subtropical climate ; as a result, it has mild, rainy winters. Although the Monte Carlo Masters tennis tournament is billed as taking place in the community, its actual location is in the adjacent French commune of Roquebrune-Cap-Martin. Monte Carlo has been visited by royalty as well as the public and movie stars for decades.
The Monte Carlo Rally is one of most respected car rallies; the rally, takes place outside the Monte Carlo quarter and is run on French roads. Although much smaller, the Salle Garnier is similar in style with decorations in red and gold, frescoes and sculptures all around the auditorium, it was inaugurated on 25 January with a performance by Sarah Bernhardt dressed as a nymph.
The first opera performed there was Robert Planquette's Le Chevalier Gaston on 8 February , and, followed by three more in the first season. With the influence of the first director, Jules Cohen and the fortunate combination of Raou. Poetry Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics , sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry.
Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing , or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas , Zoroastrian Gathas , the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric , drama and comedy. Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing.
Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance , alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived.
Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante , Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter. Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe.
Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer , was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey.
Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies. Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry.
Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre. Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry.
Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age , as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process.
English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic " Negative Capability "; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t. Orchestra pit An orchestra pit is the area in a theater in which musicians perform.
Orchestral pits are utilized in forms of theatre that require music or in cases when incidental music is required; the conductor is positioned at the front of the orchestral pit facing the stage. An orchestra pit can be any size, but it is big enough to fit a small sized orchestra or other small ensemble.
In the pit, the walls are specially designed to provide the best possible acoustics , ensuring that the sound of the orchestra flows through the entire venue without overwhelming the performance on stage. Many orchestra pits are designed to have reasonably low decibel levels, allowing musicians to work without fears of damaging their hearing.
A small platform in the pit accommodates the conductor, so that he or she can be seen by all of the musicians, who may sit in chairs or on bleachers , depending on the design of the pit. Most pits are designed as a hydraulic lift, jackscrew lift, locking chain lift and pinion lift, scissors lift or other system that can be raised and lowered as needed. The lift can be lowered all the way to a storage space under the stage, or halfway to floor level, or all the way up level with the stage. Kosinski, Dorothy M. Kress, D. Baptiste Bauche, H. Baron, Paris. Horay, Paris. Laver, James , Costumes and Fashion, Second ed.
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Garvey R. Bentley, London. Rice, Paul F. Mellen Press, Lewiston. Sadie, S ed. Salzman, P. Schalk, Ellery , From valor to pedigree: ideas of nobility in France in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. Sedgwick, E. Seifert, L. Solie, Ruth A. Soubies, Albert , Almanach des spectacles, Librairie des bibliophiles, Paris.
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Batsford, London. Whitbread, Helena ed. Wiesner, Merry E. Wilkinson-Latham, Robert , Pictorial history of swords and bayonets including dirks and daggers, Allan, London. Wilson, C.
Daragon, Paris. Woodrough, Elizabeth , Women in European theatre, vol. Volume 1, Issue 4, Intellect Books, Oxford. Woshinsky, Barbara R. Ziegler, Gilette G. La Trobe University, Related Papers. Compositrices, women composers, Komponistinnen, mujeres compositoras. By arthur chimkovitch. By Patrick S. By Gregory Hanlon. Opera and gender studies. By Heather Hadlock. By Yvonne Petry. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer.
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